Below are recent Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) projects completed by students studying Music at Pomona College.


Solo-Ensemble Agency and Temporal Referentiality as Form in the Nineteenth-Century Violin Concerto

Eron Smith ’16; Mentor: Joti Rockwell

This project proposes multiple modes of formal analysis, particularly as applied to solo-ensemble and temporal relationships in violin concerti spanning the greater part of the 19th century. I suggest a formal model in which solo and ensemble lie on a continuum rather than in mutually exclusive areas, and in which form is characterized by internal references in a piece’s timespace. Whereas some analyses have integrated solo-ritornello structures within the overall context of sonata form, I focus on agency and referentiality discretely. “Agency” refers to which part in a piece prevails in a given moment: here, the solo and orchestra parts. As a piece progresses, it moves along a continuum between the orchestra playing alone and the soloist playing alone, with some passages being ambiguous as to which part accompanies which. “Referentiality” is the extent to which a passage of music anticipates or recalls another. I conceive of form as how a piece moves through its timespace from future to past. Thus, a referential form diagram shows, for any part of a piece, the degree to which it references earlier material (past) or later material (future) and when the related section occurs. Considering agency and referentiality in analysis allows for a refined understanding and comparison of concertos, while ultimately arguing against a singular theory of 19th-century concerto form.
Funding Provided By: Cion Estate

Theorizing American Popular Music: Funk Foundations

Semassa Boko ’18; Mentor: Joti Rockwell

Funk is a genre of music that is only just beginning to receive serious scholarly attention. This project argues that rather than a sub-genre of 1970s rock, as some histories of American popular music suggest, funk is a genre of its own with rich musical and conceptual foundations. While it is nearly impossible to concisely define funk, James Brown described it in 2005 as “a rhythm-based extension of soul, a physically performed, roots-derived configuration of music that comes straight from the heart.” The musical genre both birthed and supported a new philosophy: the concept of “the funk.” Through a multi-disciplinary analysis of the minds and social conditions which came together to create funk, we gained a nuanced understanding of the power and import of the music. Our studies on funk also led us to study interrelated topics, such as black mythology and the continuity of the black musical tradition. The results of the summer project included a discography of albums central to funk and an annotated bibliography compiled via a literature review. I also began work on two independent projects: a magazine article on the relation between funk and contemporary social conditions in the United States, and an academic article on the philosophy of funk and the genre’s connections to other black musical traditions including hip hop.
Funding Provided By: Cion Estate


Conversations with Haydn: Exploring Rhetoric and Meaning in Two Keyboard Sonatas

Julia Austenfeld (2015); Mentor(s): Alfred Cramer

Abstract: Drawing on historical, cultural, and formal studies of 18th-century galant music and on scholarship that introduces applications of linguistic concepts (such as prosody and discourse analysis) to music, this study contributes to a theory of accent in 18th-century music. It is devoted to the analysis of movements from two of Joseph Haydn’s keyboard sonatas (Hob. XVI:40, 43) through the dual lenses of classical form and the analysis of discourse and rhetoric. Both pieces contain structural as well as surface-level features which suggest discourse—one dialogue takes place between the A and B sections of the movement, while the other engages the listener as participant in the musical rhetoric through a set of expectations which build up and are subsequently thwarted. The examples explored include the perplexing use of pianissimo at major cadences, an Urlinie which never arrives on scale degree 1, and the way dynamics affect the listener’s interpretation of the dialogue between sections in ternary form. These modes of discourse provide a concise point of entry for examining 18th century galant music in context, and Haydn’s musical rhetoric here is particularly compelling because it both constructs and destabilizes meaning without saying a single word.
Funding Provided by: Class of 1971 SURP Fund


Handwriting Analysis of Scores from the Society for Private Musical Performances

Scott Duffy (2013); Student Collaborator(s): Benjamin Graubart (2014); Paul Koenig (2014); Mentor(s): Alfred Cramer; Joti Rockwell

Abstract: The Society for Private Musical Performances (Vienna, 1918-1921) aimed to create clear, well prepared performances of modern music. Under the artistic direction of the important modernist composer Arnold Schoenberg, the Society set a standard for later performances of chamber and 20th century music. Many aspects of the Society have been studied, but we lack an understanding of the precise nature of their interpretations as well as the ways in which the rehearsal directors and performers in the organization arrived at them. Musical scores used in the Society’s performances contain much information about this question within many hand-written markings pertaining to aspects of musicality such as dynamics, phrasing, articulation, and tempo. We categorized handwriting in order to identify who contributed each musical marking. Through identification of the hand we may discern what aspects of music each member (and Schoenberg in particular) deemed essential to a clear, correct performance of new music.
Funding Provided by: Pomona College SURP; National Endowment for the Humanities; Avenir Foundation; Arnold Schoenberg Center

Form and Motive in the Symphonies of Johannes Brahms

Paul Koenig (2014); Mentor(s): Eric Lindholm

Abstract: Twenty-two years passed between Johannes Brahms's initial symphonic efforts and the completion of his first symphony. The length of this period speaks not only to this composer's deliberate nature, but also to the problem of creating a compelling Romantic statement in a genre which developed in accordance with Classical expectations. Brahms's symphonies are among the most successful attempts at reconciling traditional forms and techniques with the Romantic ethos; this research project endeavors to define the composer's unique symphonic style and determine the ways in which he adapts symphonic conventions to the aesthetic of his time. Formal and motivic analysis led to the identification of three characteristic devices: a sonata form with large omissions in the first group of the recapitulation, large and small-scale thirds relationships, and thematic transformation. Though they have historical precedents, Brahms's consistent, extraordinary synthesis of these elements imbued the symphony with true Romantic relevance.
Funding Provided by: Pomona College SURP

The Evolution of Style in the Old-Time Fiddle Recordings of Clark Kessinger

Benjamin Graubart (2014); Student Collaborator(s): Scott Duffy (2013); Mentor(s): Joti Rockwell; Alfred Cramer

Abstract: West Virginian old-time fiddler Clark Kessinger is an intriguing player, having recorded in two separate eras of American folk music. In the 1920s, he and his cousin, guitarist Luches Kessinger, played dances and radio shows as the “Kessinger Brothers” and released several successful recordings from sessions in 1929 and 1930. Following a professional hiatus that began with the Great Depression, Kessinger was “rediscovered” in 1964 during the height of the urban folk revival, and he participated in fiddle contests and released recordings until his death in 1975. Analysis of the development of Kessinger’s playing across these eras sheds light on how the differing environments and expectations of the '20s and '60s shaped the performance of American folk music. Through close listening and transcription, this project demonstrates in detail how Kessinger’s style evolved from performance suited to a dance hall context toward that of the fiddle contest stage.
Funding Provided by: Pomona College SURP