Senior Thesis Deadlines 2019
|Timeline: data collection & analyses||timeline: Paper Drafts||timeline: PRESENTATIONS|
Finalize Research Plan & Begin Data Collection
January 22 - February 1
DUE: Results, Tables & Figures Draft
DUE: Presentation Title & Times Available
Data Collection Complete
March 1 (or earlier)
Discussion & Introduction Revisions
April 1 - April 15
Data Analysis & Results Section
March 4 - March 29
DUE: Full Draft (No Exceptions)
DUE: Final Paper (No Exceptions)
**April 29 before 4:30 p.m.
*Please submit your availability for presentations to Sandy Lundergan-Price after confirming your advisor's availability for selected times.
**One hard copy, double sided and unbound must be delivered to Sandy in addition to an electronic copy to your advisor (cc’ing Sandy). There will be an automatic third of a grade reduction per day for a thesis turned in late.
*** Presentations are in Lincoln Hall #1135. Each student will make a 12-minute public presentation (with three minutes for questions). The department will be providing lunch to share with Alumni during the break. Alumni are also invited to attend presentations.
What is Expected in Senior Thesis?
Before beginning data collection, remember that you will need to turn in to your advisor the "Request of Review of Research Using Human Subjects Proposal" form. Once you have received approval from your advisor or the IRB, you may begin collecting data for your senior thesis. ***Be sure to check the senior thesis deadline.
Writing Your Thesis: The Final Draft
We are often asked about the length required for a senior thesis. Your advisor is the best person to ask about this. He or she knows how long yours should probably be. Most of us do not want a long paper. The economical journal format and its concise style is one frequent model for the thesis. Other faculty, and sometimes students, want to include their entire literature review in the thesis. Again, it is best to work this out with your advisor. Please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) for details about content and style.
The 100-150 word abstract should give the reader a clear picture of the main contribution of your thesis.
If your advisor prefers the journal article format for the thesis, the Introduction is not a critical and historical review of the literature; rather it is a vehicle to motivate the research and involve the reader's interest in it. Six to eight pages is usually adequate for this purpose.
The Method section does not give every detail of procedure, only the essentials (but all of the essentials) that would allow the reader to replicate your study.
Results & Discussion
The length of the Results and Discussion sections depend greatly on the nature of your study and your data, but there, too, economy is an important goal.
You will probably find that a total length of 20-25 pages is adequate space to report your study. You will also find that it is easier to write a loose, careless 40 page paper than a tight 20 page paper. It is certainly worth the extra effort to bring your paper down to an elegant length, in a form that says everything you want to say (and says it well) but without redundancy.
Things that lengthen the paper and detract from it
- Irrelevant articles or theories cited and discussed in the Introduction (Ask yourself: Does this point contribute to the thesis I am developing?) Irrelevant details (e.g., color of experimental room, time of day) in Method section.
- Material reported in wrong section. If you put results in the Discussion section, for example, you usually need more words to describe them than if you had put them in the Results section.
- Redundant or verbose descriptions, explanations, discussion, etc. Ask yourself: Is this word really necessary? Is this sentence really necessary? Can I use a single sentence to say everything in this paragraph?
Things NOT to skimp on
- Report all of your research, or follow-up research you did after your original study. Seniors have sometimes assumed their thesis could report only one experiment. Actually, preliminary and follow-up research can add a lot to the report.
- Introduction--giving the overall theory and exactly how it generates the hypotheses tested in this study. Don't make your experimental hypothesis sound like a hunch or an educated guess rather than derivations from a more general theory or hypothesis.
- Discussion--explain how your findings relate to the theory.
Some other issues to keep in mind
- Don't report significance of an effect without reporting the data. e.g., "The results showed groups A and B to differ at the .01 level ..."). Report means, standard deviations and statistics (e.g., the values of t's or F's.). See APA Publication Manual for details on reporting statistics.
- Don't present complex tables when a figure plotting the data would be easier to interpret.
- Don't abandon ship when the data don't "come out." In fact, data are sometimes most interesting when they are unexpected. Don't bail out of the task of interpreting the results just because they are unexpected or marginally reliable. (On the other hand, if your data are obviously noise and nothing more, don't spend pages speculating over a null effect.)
- Don't make your experimental predictions sound like educated guesses rather than derivations from a more general theory or hypothesis.
- Talks will be scheduled for a total of 15 minutes each.
- Speakers should plan a talk that would take about 10 minutes without interruption and assume that about 5 minutes will be occupied by questions at the end.
- A convention talk of this length might have 1 or 2 minutes of general orientation at the beginning, about 3 minutes to describe the procedure, and about 5 minutes to present and discuss the results. (Of course, some talks will require a different apportionment of time.) As you can see, the time limitation forces you to be very concise and to get to the main point quickly.
- There is no time for a literature review. Spend at most a minute on a focused citation of studies that motivate your study very directly. At best, you can explain to the audience what the problem is, why it is interesting, and what you found out about it.
- Make sure that the audience understands what you did. If they don't understand your talk, you might as well not have given it. Since you will have only 15 minutes, concentrate on the essentials of your study.
- Don't waste time on irrelevant details, however interesting they may be. Show good judgment and good taste in isolating the essentials of your study.
- If you are using a survey or questionnaire, it is a good idea to give your audience a few samples of items so that they will have a clearer idea about the materials used in your study.
- Graphics may help your talk go quickly, or at least make everything clearer at a given speed. You should therefore try to use graphs, figures, and diagrams to illustrate your talk whenever possible.
- Do not feel you have to restrict their use to the presentation of results. Visual aids can be of great use in illustrating contrasting theoretical viewpoints or describing an experimental design. A time-saving trick is to make a figure or table that shows the results and makes clear the main variables in your study and, if possible, its design. You can present this visual aid while discussing your design. Your audience will thus be learning two things at once because they will see the results and the design at the same time. An alternative is to present an empty matrix that outlines the design and then add in the results when it is time to give them. A transparent overlay can make this type of presentation very elegant, but just having a second slide or poster of the matrix with the numbers added is fine.
Oral presentation is an art, a skill that everyone can master. You will do your best if you adapt these pieces of advice to your own personal style. For example, some people do better reading a prepared (and well practiced) talk while others prefer speaking more informally from notes and cue cards. Both approaches can be effective.
What is better for you depends on your own style. Remember that in giving a talk you are on stage. Keep the attention and interest of the audience. The best way to do this is make sure that they understand what you did and what you found. give the essential details, skip irrelevancies, and be sure that the audience does not have to guess about anything of importance.
Visually Present Your Results
- If you have means, present them!
- Whatever your overall measure, present the actual numbers in a visual form.
- Never report only a general summary of the results, such as "there were no differences between the conditions" or "the control and experimental conditions differed significantly." It is very frustrating to be told that some effect was or was not significant without being shown what were the means.
- Do not be obsessed with details of statistical tests; it is usually sufficient simply to say that a relationship or difference was significant--the means and the main features of the results are generally of more interest to the audience than the exact levels of significance.
- You may want to present data on the effect size.
- In order to be sure that your talk will fit smoothly in the time limit, you should practice it beforehand under timed conditions.
- It would be good to have an audience for your practice to make sure the talk is understandable as well as of the right length.
- Make sure the audience will understand what you did.
Day of Presentation
Please ask your friends to come to your talk (and to others'), if only to be your cheering section. We find that a moderate audience tends to improve the quality of both the presentations and the questions asked.
Also, we want all speakers to stay through all the talks. It is poor form just to show up for your own talk and then leave when it's over.
Let us know in advance if you have a schedule conflict that will preclude your attendance for the whole convention.
Examples of Previous Student Thesis Topics
- Language brokering among the Latinx millennial generation. (Advisor: Bacio)
- Log Kya Kahenge?: Perceived stigma and mental illness in the South Asian American community. (Advisor: Bacio)
- Relational savoring with mothers of toddlers: Change in emotion and insight as mediators of positive and negative outcomes. (Advisor: Smiley)
- Links between domestic conflict, maternal psychological functioning and child emotional regulation. (Advisor: Smiley)
- Parental conditional regard: The effects on African-American Development. (Advisors: Hurley/Smiley)
- The effects of cultural discontinuity on the experiences of Black college students. (Advisor: Hurley)
- A new perspective on the knobe effect: Judging intent of a known side effect by outcome. (Advisor: Pearson)
- Psychological standing: Understanding Whites’ participation in racial diversity initiative. (Advisor: Pearson)
- Misdiagnosing the problem: The influence off mental illness stigma on parole decision making. (Advisor: Masland)
- Attachment style, therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcomes in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient setting. (Advisor: Masland)
- Cultural influences on social norms. (Advisor: Goto)
- Possible predictors and influence of self-esteem of women at work. (Advisor: Goto)
Manual for Experimental Reports
In psychology, as in most scientific fields, experimental reports are written in a specific format. There are two very good reasons for this. First, the format makes it easier for the reader to know where to look for information on a particular point. It is not necessary to read the entire article to find it. Secondly, the standard format makes the report easier to write. The author is spared all problems dealing with the literary structure of the report. The format specifies in which section of the report one should place particular types of information about the experiment. Thus, while writing the report, the author can focus on each section without having to make decisions about what information does or does not belong there.
Lab reports for this course will follow the standard format used in psychology. Below are the headings for the different sections that make up the experimental report given in their order of appearance. A description of what information belongs in each section follows. All sections begin with their heading entered on the page, except for the Cover sheet, the Introduction and Tables and Figures, which have no headings. The paper is double-spaced throughout.
Organization of Experimental Report
- Cover sheet
- Author's name and affiliation
- Apparatus and materials
- Tables and Figures
1. Cover Sheet
The cover sheet includes three elements: the title, author and affiliation. It is a separate page of the manuscript with the title centered on the page, the author beneath the title, and the affiliation beneath the author.
The principal function of the title is very briefly to inform readers about the experiment. The title should be a concise statement of the main idea of the experiment, referring to the major variables or theoretical issues you have investigated. It is often a good idea to state explicitly in the title the actual variables, both dependent and independent, under investigation, for example:
"The effect of acoustic similarity on serial recall of letters"
"Display size and the span of apprehension"
Avoid words that serve no useful purpose and only increase length for examples
"A study of ..."
"An experimental investigation of ..."
The maximum length for the title is 15 words.
Your name and the name of any co-author should appear beneath the title (without the word "by"). Beneath the author's name is your institutional affiliation, i.e., Pomona College, if you are enrolled at Pomona.
The abstract appears on the second page of the manuscript and is the only section on this page. It is typed as a single paragraph and should be between 100 and 175 words.
The abstract is a brief summary of the content and purpose of the report. It should be self contained and fully intelligible without reference to the body of the paper giving a succinct account of the main points of that section. It should include succinct information about the experimental problem, method, results and conclusions. Variables or techniques which are important in the experiment should be specifically mentioned. For example, the abstract for a study of tactile memory in blind and sighted participants would specifically mention the type of participants used.
One way to write an abstract is to write one or two sentences for each section of the report. The amount written should reflect the importance of the information for the experiment. It is probably easiest to write an abstract after you have finished the rest of the report.
The introduction has no heading, but the title appears at the top of the first page of the introduction. The purpose of the introduction is to state the specific research problem under study and to explain its importance in a broader context. In other words, you should explain what you are doing in the experiment and why. The introduction should include: a brief review of previous work in the area with a clear explanation of the relationship between this work and the problem under study; a brief discussion of relevant theories and how they are related to the problem; a preview of the particular methods used in the experiment with perhaps a statement of the independent and dependent variables; finally a statement of the experimental hypothesis and the implications of the possible results of the experiment.
For example, consider an introduction for a report of an experiment investigating whether full attention is required to recognize the pitch of a target tone in noise. The introduction could open with a summary of results typically found in pitch identification. This could be followed by a description of the theoretical model of auditory recognition that has been based, in part, on these results. The problem under study would be even when the subject's attention is directed, at least in part, to another task. It would be pointed out that current theories of attention hold that there is a limitation on how much can be simultaneously attended to. There should be a summary in a few sentences of the empirical evidence for this claim focusing on studies of auditory recognition, like the present one.
Next one might describe how the problem is studied in the present experiment. The independent variable is whether or not the subject is required to perform another task, e.g., judge the duration of a light presented at the same time the target tone is presented. Another independent variable is the subject's accuracy in identifying the pitch of the tone. The hypothesis is that identification of pitch requires attention and thus, the subject's performance in identifying the tone will decline when another task is presented at the same time. In other words, it is more difficult to recognize two different stimuli at once than it is to recognize just one. It should be pointed out that in both cases, when the distracting task of judging the light is presented and when it is not, the same information is available. Thus if performance on the tone identification in the masking task is lower when the second task is presented, it suggests that full attention rather than divided attention is needed. This discussion will lead to introduction of the purpose of the present experiments, which is to test whether the two tasks interfere.
Predictions: Often an introduction section ends with prediction regarding the outcome of the experiment. Predictions are not guesses or hunches. Predictions are tests of theories. A theory makes a prediction. If the prediction is not verified by the result of the experiment, then the theory must be revised or rejected. If you have no theory, do not make "predictions."
The purpose of the method is to describe exactly what was done in the experiment. The information should be specific enough that the reader could perform precisely the same experiment and thus independently verify the results. This information also allows the reader to judge whether the experiment really measures what it claims to, i.e., whether the procedure is free confounding variables, etc.
The method is usually divided into the following subsections, which begin with their headings.
This subsection gives information about who participated in the study. Participants should be described by giving their sex, age, and educational level. Other information should be included when it is relevant to the problem under study; for example, in experiments involving auditory perception it would be important to report whether participants had normal hearing, and if so, how you tested their hearing. You should always state the number of participants and how they were selected, e.g., through local schools, in dormitories, by answering an advertisement, etc. In the case of an experiment that manipulates the independent variable between participants, you should state how participants were assigned to the different groups.
Apparatus and material
This subsection describes the apparatus (e.g., equipment), and/or materials (e.g., stimuli) used in the experiment. Specialized equipment (such as a tachistoscope) obtained from a commercial establishment should be identified by the firm's name and a model number. There are experiments which use no equipment, for example a study of memory span for words in which words are presented on a card and the subject writes the response on a sheet of paper. In this case the subsection would be titled just "Materials," and would describe the words, i.e., how many syllables, parts of speech, and how they were selected.
This subsection would summarize each step in the execution of the experiment from beginning to end. It should answer the following questions about the design of the experiment: were variables manipulated between or within participants; how were the independent variables manipulated and how many variations were there; what was the order of presentation of the variable, e.g., were the different variables presented in "blocked" or "random" order? Instructions should be summarized unless they were an independent variable and thus were used in different versions. In the latter case, the instructions should be presented verbatim. One way to organize the procedure subsection is to think about what was done to a subject from the beginning of the experiment to the end.
Note on multiple experiments: Sometimes a series of experiments are carried out to investigate a particular problem. In this case, the experiments can be reported in a single article. The overall organization of the report remains basically the same with a few changes. First, each experiment has its own section labeled with a heading, e.g., Experiment 1, Experiment 2, etc. These headings make it convenient for a reader to refer to a specific experiment. For each experimental heading the introduction, method, and results sections appear under their appropriate designation. In the introduction you should make the logic and rationale of each new experiment clear. There is usually considerable similarity among the methods for the experiments and you need not repeat information that is given in a previous experimental heading. You can simply say, "The procedure was identical to the one used in Experiment 1." A short discussion may appear under each experimental heading but it is usually combined with the results section (e.g., Results and Discussion.) A more inclusive, general discussion of all of the work should be included at the end of the report.
The results section presents a summary of the data collected in the experiment. First, state the main finding of the experiment. You should be very careful to state only what the data show, not an interpretation of the data. For example, if the data from the study described above showed that there were more correct identifications of the tone when the subject did not have a distracting task, the results section could begin:
"Participants' accuracy in identifying the target tone was lower in trials when the distracting task was presented than on trials when it was not presented. The mean percent correct for all participants on trials with distraction was 65% and without distraction was 80%."
There is usually data to be presented in tables and figures. You must verbally describe in the results section any tables or figures you wish to include. However, discuss only the highlights in the text; if every item is discussed, the table becomes unnecessary. The paragraph following the one in quotes above might be:
"Table 1 presents the mean percent correct at each duration of the tone. Percent correct is shown separately for trials with distraction and without distraction. These data show that percent correct increases as the duration of the tone increases. Also, percent correct is higher for trials without distraction at most durations."
Do not present data in tables or figures when it can be presented as well in a few sentences in the text. You should refer to data concerning the effects of all independent variables, even if they are counter to your hypothesis.
If you know the proper statistical tests to perform on your data, by all means perform the tests and report the results. However, it is of no use to anyone for you to find a statistical test that you do not understand and apply it blindly in a "cookbook" fashion. Remember that the reader is interested in statistical tests only to determine that they estimate the reliability of your results. The descriptive statistics (means, percentages, scale values, etc. are what the reader wants to know, and they should be presented clearly and completely. The general rule for this class is that those who have not had a statistics course are exempted from having to perform an inferential tests of the significance of their results.
Speculations and inferential statements are saved for this section. In the discussion, you should first evaluate your results with respect to your original hypothesis. You might also give attention to the implications of the results for the theoretical issues raised in the introduction. You should note any differences between your results and the previous research reviewed in the introduction. You should state clearly and directly what conclusions can be drawn from the study.
In addition, the discussion is the place to qualify your results and the conclusions that can be drawn from them. You can note any shortcomings of the study. It is best when discussing focus to say what difference they may make on the results. For examples, the statement that participants were not chosen randomly tells us almost nothing. It does not tell us how the results may have been influenced.
The reference section begins on a separate page. In it you must list all references cited in the experimental report. It is assumed you have read all references cited. The references must be listed in the references section according to a specific format, the rules of which are given below. The rules are all exemplified in the illustration that follows.
In the text. Refer to an article by citing the name of the author or authors, and put the date of the article in parentheses: "According to Author (1970) .......". If there are two authors, cite thusly: "Author and Author (1974) showed that ...". If there are three or more, name them all in the first citation, but thereafter refer to the paper by mentioning only the first author, followed by "et al." and the date if appropriate. Thus, you would say "... as found by Author, Author, and Friend (1977). The interpretation given by Author et al. is that ...". Note that in the last example the date was not repeated. It was not repeated because there was no ambiguity as to which Author et al. article was intended. The decision to repeat dates or not depends on whether or not the reference would be ambiguous without the date. There is no way to set a rule for you to follow, but when in doubt, repeat. Occasionally you will want to make a statement about a theory or result without using the author's name in the sentence. In this case the references for the statement can be put in parentheses at the end of your sentence, for example, "It has been suggested that the capacity of STM is 7 +/-2 items (Miller, 1967). If your reference is made within a parenthesis, set off the date with commas, and for multiple authors use an ampersand rather than "and". Otherwise, all the rules are the same.
In the references. For articles, the format is
Author, I., Author, J., & Author, K. (Year), Title, . Journal Name, vol. page to page.
For books the format is
Author, I., Author, J. and Author, K. (year). Title. City: Publisher.
Many studies have demonstrated that complex learning occurs in plants (e.g., Ison & Gray, 1978; Kamano, 1972). A most astounding study involving the Venus' flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) was reported by Schwartzbaum and Zimney (1982). These authors reported that "the participants were able to discriminate sugar water and vinegar injected flies with 89% accuracy" (p. 419). A follow-up study by Beatty, Gray, and Nemo (1980b) confirmed the Schwartzbaum and Zimney results. However, subsequent studies by Beatty, Gray, and Nemo (1980a) and by Ison, Doolee, and Tinker (1981) have not been able to repeat the outcomes. Ison et al. attributed the inconsistent results to the proportion of sand in the rearing soil. Many investigators have found sand content to be important only when "a fine grain analysis is made" (Bump, 1980, p. 596).
Note that when direct quotations are made in the text, you must give the page of the reference from which the quote was taken. Also note how a chapter in a book is referenced, e. g., Ison & Gray (1978).
Beatty, W. R., Gray, T. J., & Nemo, C. (1980). Ingestion of flies by Venus' flytraps (Dionaea muscipula): A failure to replicate. Journal of Plant Behavior, 16, 269- 275.
Beatty, W. R., Gray, T. J., & Nemo, C. (1980). Ingestion of sweet and sour flies by Venus' flytraps (Dionaea muscipula). Journal of Plant and Weed Cognition, 48, 136-137. (b)
Bump, V. R. Y. Sand, grit, and other dirt. (1980). Bulletin of the Atomic Botanist, 82, 596-604.
Ison, K. B., Doolee, F., & Tinker, B. (1981). Indiscriminate ingestion of flies by flytraps. Journal of Plant Learning and Plant Behavior, 49, 469-470.
Ison, K. B., & Gray, T. J. Forgetting in plants and elephants. In T. M., Mason & J. K. Jarr (Eds.) (1978). Learning is where you find it. New York: Mediocre Press.
Kamano, M. The neurophysiology of American plants. (1972). Outlandish, N. J: Bench Press.
Schwartzbaum, I. M. & Zimney, U. P. Task discrimination of Dionaea muscipula. (1982)
Journal of Plant Digestion, 13, 412-420.
8. Tables and figures
Tables are placed after the reference section and they are followed by figures.
A. Tables. Number all tables with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in text. Give every table a brief but clear explanatory title. In the title make clear that the data is, e.g., mean number of correct responses, percent errors, mean response time (in msec.), etc. When the data are statistics (e.g., means, standard deviations) it is usually sufficient to round off to two places to the right of the decimal point. But always be consistent in how many places you report for a given set of data.
B. Figures. All graphs, charts, and illustrations are called figures when mentioned in text. Number all figures consecutively with Arabic numerals. Each figure should have a caption that describes the contents of the figure in a brief sentence or phrase. In parentheses after the figure caption, add any information needed for clarification, such as an explanation of units of measurement. Also be sure to label the axes of the figures and the separate lines or curves in the figure.